The Way to Ascertain the Soil Absorption Rate for a Drainage Bed

If you plan to build a drainage bed, or drainage basin, it’s very important that you be aware of the absorption speed of the site’s dirt. This speed will tell you how much area in square feet that the bed should cover for draining water to harden, or absorb into, the soil rather than pooling on or running off the region. Pooling can attract insects and cause smells, and runoff erodes soil and can spread contaminates. Soil’s absorption rate is dependent upon the amount of clay, sand, loam or gravel that the soil contains.

Choose at least three locations to dig a hole at the prospective drainage bed area, with the holes spaced evenly across that area. If the region is large region, then digging over three holes will create more precise soil absorption rate results. For instance, plan to dig 1 hole at each corner and at the center of the future drainage bed area, or dig holes in a grid pattern each 20 feet if the bed area will be very big.

Dig a vertical hole using a 4- to 12-inch circumference in each location chosen for a hole, employing an augur or spade for the endeavor. Every hole’s sides must be vertical, and each hole has to be the same depth water will enter the drainage bed, which usually is 6 to 36 inches below the soil surface.

Roughen the walls of each hole if necessary to keep the absorption conditions natural. If a hole’s sides are smooth, solid surface as opposed to how dirt appears naturally in the lawn, then that state will not lead to an absorption rate that is accurate for the lawn.

Place about a 2-inch-deep layer of 1/2-inch gravel in the bottom of each hole.

Fill each hole with no less than a 12-inch-depth of water, measuring from the top of the gravel. If a hole is fewer than 12 inches deep, then put at least a 6-inch-depth of water from the hole. Allow the water to saturate the soil overnight or for no less than four hours, adding water to each hole as necessary during that time to keep the water level in the 12-inch or even 6-inch depth over the gravel, using whichever water depth you used initially. If, however, you add water to a hole twice and twice the water drains in fewer than 10 minutes, then you don’t have to add water to the hole. Furthermore, if the soil is mostly clay and a hole’s water level does not appear to move, then continue to maintain the hole’s water level for three to five days. The time you maintain a certain water level in each hole is that the saturation period.

Place a yardstick or ruler in each hole the day following the saturation period is over. The yardstick’s or ruler’s ending displaying the 1-inch mark has to be at the hole’s bottom, over the layer of gravel. The yardstick or ruler should make it to the top of the hole, and so use a ruler just in a hole that is no more than 12 inches deep. The water does not have to have drained entirely in the hole, but it has to be fewer than 6 inches deep.

Add enough water to each hole so that the water depth is 6 inches. Refill each hole to the 6-inch water depth every 30 minutes for four hours as water seeps in the hole. Write down the water level in each hole in the four-hour mark, but don’t add water to the holes. Subtract 1 hole’s current degree of water out of six to ascertain how many inches of water have been consumed. Duplicate that job for every single hole. If your lawn has sandy soil and the holes’ water is eliminated before 30 minutes pass, then refill every single hole to the 6-inch water depth every 10 minutes for a period of one hour. Take the water level measurement of the holes in the mark.

Divide the elapsed time by the number of inches the water level dropped in the 6-inch degree in a hole during the last measurement interval. If, for instance, 4 inches of water stayed in a hole following 30 minutes, then divide 30 by 2 to find an absorption rate of 15 minutes per inch for that hole.

Insert the absorption rates of each hole. Divide that total by the number of holes to find the average absorption rate for the whole possible drainage bed area. If you found over a 20-minute per inch difference in the absorption rates of the fastest-draining and slowest-draining holes, then utilize the slowest-draining hole’s absorption speed as the absorption rate for the drainage bed region.

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How to Wash Wooden Paneling With Vinegar and Mineral Oil

If you grew up in the 1960s or ’70s, wood paneling, together with orange shag carpet and avocado-green appliances were the decorating rage of the afternoon. Paneling from this period consisted of durable fiberboard sheets covered hardwood veneer, generally in dark brown. But today, paneling is significantly lighter in its own tones, ranging from faux cherry wood to aged-picket-fence white. Paneling requires minimal attention to keep it looking good, making it a favorite in family homes full of pets and kids. You are able to keep paneling looking its best by utilizing household products such as vinegar and mineral oil rather than costly over-the-counter products that may contain chemicals you do not want in your home.

Everyday Cleaning

Dust the paneling by wiping it with a dry microfiber dusting cloth. If dusting does not remove all the dirt, then use a vacuum cleaner with a brush attachment to remove the loose dirt and dust. Be sure to clean in the crevices on the surface of the paneling fully, where dirt and dust get trapped.

Insert 1/2 cup of mineral oil and 1/4 cup of vinegar into your spray bottle.

Fill a measuring cup with warm water and add it into the mix in the spray bottle. Shake the bottle to mix the solution.

Spray the mix on the wall and rub it in with a clean rag, scrubbing any particularly dirty spots in a circular motion.

Buff the wall with another clean, dry cloth in a circular motion to pull out the shine of the paneling.

Deep Cleaning and Polishing

Pour 1/2 cup of apple-cider vinegar and one cup of warm water into a spray bottle to make an extra-strength cleaning alternative.

Saturate a microfiber fabric using the spray on to clean stubborn grease or dirty spots on the paneling. Wash your paneling in tiny sections using this method.

Wipe paneling dry with microfiber fabric when finished cleaning.

Apply mineral oil into some other clean, dry cloth. Buff the paneling in tiny circles with the fabric to make it shine.

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What Impact Does Common Vents Have in an HVAC System?

Like the thought that cranking the thermostat all the way up or down cools or heats a home quicker, the belief that closing some family ports increases overall HVAC performance and efficiency is a busted myth. In reality, it usually has the opposite effect. In today’s energy-efficient residences, air flow is balanced to preserve neutral air pressure in each room. When some ports are closed, that delicate balance hints, energy consumption increases and household relaxation declines.

Increased Duct Leakage

Even with all ports open, the Department of Energy estimates the typical house loses up to 20 percent of heated and cooled air through leaky ducts. But that percentage climbs even higher if some supply ports are closed. Air pressure inside supply ducts increases in proportion to the number of ports closed and shoves still greater quantities of conditioned air out of existing leaks. Your furnace or A/C runs more “on” cycles to compensate for your reduction, boosting operating expenses.

Pressure Imbalances

Although the supply enroll into your room is closed, the return enroll from the room (which cannot be closed) proceeds pulling air into the furnace or A/C. Room air pressure changes out of neutral to negative. A closed, depressurized room always sucks unconditioned outside air in through small gaps and cracks which exist in almost any structure. Room temperature gets cold or warm and transfers to adjoining rooms by conduction through walls, offsetting the air conditioner or furnace as well as increasing energy consumption.

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Sprinkler Systems & Wells

Sprinkler systems supply even watering for your lawn or garden on a program which you control. Setting up a sprinkler system typically involves measuring the pressure and water circulation of your home’s water main and designing the sprinkler system accordingly. If you plan on using a well to feed the sprinkler system, then there are a few things that you must keep in mind to avoid potential system issues or damage.

Water Pressure

Wells operate differently than a municipal water system, pulling water from the ground and then pumping it to your house. Instead of maintaining a constant pressure like lots of municipal systems do, the water provided by your nicely uses local pumps to give pressure. This pressure might differ based on the size and power of the pumps used and may be lower than what you would have access to on a bigger system. Another pump is frequently used to power the sprinkler system, providing more pressure inside the system and preventing pressure drops in the event you utilize water at the house while the sprinklers are functioning.

Variable Flow Rate

Calculating the flow speed supplied by means of a well is tricky since most wells feature a cylinder where your house draws its water. The flow rate provided by the cylinder frequently differs from that of the well itself, causing the speed of flow to fall if the tank gets empty. As sprinkler systems utilize a lot of water, your sprinklers can utilize all the water on your well tank if they pull more water than your principal well pump supplies. If your system attempts to draw more water when the cylinder is empty, air is pulled into the pump which can lead to overheating and eventual breakdown.

Backflow Prevention

A backflow prevention module is an significant part any sprinkler system. This is especially important for a well-fed sprinkler system, as it prevents dust, dirt and other unwanted contaminants that might get in the sprinkler pipes from leeching into the water storage tank which also provides your home. Various grades of backflow prevention modules are available and local statutes may specify a minimum grade for you to utilize to avoid waterborne illness or other possible issues.

Size Limitations

The pressure and flow rate limitations of a well produce a limit to the magnitude of sprinkler program you can install on your premises. You should consult the performance graphs for different sprinkler heads and pump systems to determine how much area you can cover the pressure and flow speed that your nicely supplies. Optimizing the design of your sprinkler system will help as well, as each bend or curve from the system reduces pressure marginally. Increasing the magnitude of the heels in your well will increase output pressure and flow speed, though this growth is limited by the magnitude of the pipes and other equipment employed from the well.

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Muscadine Varieties for Wine

All grapes are not created equal. Some are cultivated for fresh eating, and others for pressing into making and juice wine. Muscadines (Vitis rotundifolia) are grapes that boom from the heat, humidity and long growing seasons of the native southeastern United States. Several muscadine varieties are grown especially for wine-making due to their juice grade and pigment firmness.

Grape Species

Muscadines differ in look, taste and culture from other grape species. Other American native grapes (V. labrusca) develop in colder regions of the USA, and European grapes (V. vinifera) thrive from the Mediterranean climate of California vineyards. French hybrids are crosses of European and American grapes. In areas outside the southeastern United States, muscadines do not boom, but their rootstock is favored. Because of its natural resistance to diseases and insects, viticulturists prefer muscadine rootstock for grafting other grape species.

Muscadine Wine Grapes

Muscadine grapes mature individually in loose clusters instead of simultaneously in bunches such as other grapes. Harvesting muscadines leaves a stem scar at the point where individual grapes attach to stems. Grapes for ingesting should have a “dry stem scar” so they pull from vines and hold well after harvest. Wine grape varieties have “wet stem scars” that make them suitable for making and pressing juice. Another varietal thought for muscadine wine grapes is pigment firmness. Muscadine grape pigments are more unstable than other species, which causes juice to undertake a brown cast over time. Selecting muscadine varieties with stable pigments makes the best wine.

Red Wine Varieties

Purple and purplish-black muscadine grapes make red wine. “Noble” is the principal variety for creating red muscadine wine due to its many desirable traits over its counterparts. Its purple shells have more stability than most other muscadines. “Noble” is a productive, disease-resistant vine that bears grapes with high-quality flavor. The muscadine grape breeding program in the University of Georgia lists “Noble” as the leading red-wine cultivar and recommends it as the premier choice for this particular use. “Regale” has a distinctive flavor and productive habit, making it a different desirable red-wine grape.

White Wine Varieties

Bronze-colored muscadines make wine. “Carlos” is the top bronze collection for juice processing and wine making. In certain areas where “Carlos” is susceptible to berry decay, “Doreen” is a suitable substitute due to its higher disease resistance. “Doreen” bears exceptional football-shaped grapes on productive and vigorous vines. “Magnolia” has greater cold tolerance than other varieties although it ripens unevenly, which necessitates staggered harvests. “Welder” is just another bronze collection which bears prolifically on powerful vines.

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The way to Grow Vegetables Close Eucalyptus Shade

For gardeners with small yards and large trees, vegetable growing is something of a struggle. If the tree in question is in the Eucalyptus family, the challenge is much greater, because the leaves are evergreen, providing year-found shade, and they shed copious amounts of leaves and bark peelings which are toxic to some plants. To get around these challenges, develop sturdy edible perennial vegetables under the canopy, and utilize containers or raised beds in the sunniest spaces near the tree.

Remove or prune some of the eucalyptus’ divisions, if possible. Opening up the tree even marginally can bring a surprising amount of light to plants growing under or just past the tree.

Plant shade-tolerant, perennial vegetables under the outer canopy of this eucalyptus. Bamboo, New Zealand spinach and daylilies, all that have edible plant parts, tolerate the tree’s leaf litter and dry, partial shade.

Establish raised beds or containers to get annual vegetables as far outside the tree’s canopy as you can. These growing systems avoid competition between vegetable roots and tree roots. Additionally, by removing the need to dig into the dirt, you wo not need to worry that alleopathins from decayed leaf litter will damage your vegetable crops.

Fill containers and raised beds using top soil or potting compost and soil.

Plant seeds or seedlings of leafy vegetables that can tolerate partial shade. Good choices include beets, onions, cooking greens — kale, mustard greens, spinach, collards, cabbage and chard — along with leafy greens.

Mulch that the annual vegetables to conserve water, suppress weeds and form a barrier between the soil and the eucalyptus leaf litter.

Water annual vegetables often. Even in the shade, raised beds and containers dry out more rapidly than traditional garden beds. Examine the dirt at least once every day.

Handpick bark and leaf litter from chlorine beds, or use a leaf blower. This not only cuts down on the risk of eucalyptus allelopathins from harming the vegetables, but prevents the litter from crushing or smothering smaller vegetables.

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The way to look for Indian Hawthorn Seeds

Don’t confuse the Indian hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica) with the thorned and hardy native hawthorn tree. Indian hawthorns are low-growing, low-maintenance flowering shrubs indigenous to China, offering dense evergreen mounds of leaf around 6 feet high. The bush explodes with fragrant white or pink blossoms in springtime, from that develop the curved fruit or pomes, similar to rose hips. Generally tolerant of soil and shade, Indian hawthorns are somewhat drought resistant and largely maintenance free once launched. This tree thrives in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 11.

Explain Indian hawthorn plants when they begin to blossom in mid-April. Start looking for fragrant flower clusters resembling these crabapples, either white or pink. The plant’s leaves are rounded, leathery and dark green with serrated edges. Even though the Indian hawthorn is evergreen, some of the old leaves turn vibrant colours and drop in autumn.

Assess the Indian hawthorn bush above the summer. As the blooms fade, berries begin to grow. They are curved but slightly flattened, about 1/2-inch in diameter. They are ripe when they turn bluish-black in late summer or early fall and are soft to the touch.

Gather the berries in autumn before all are absorbed by hungry birds. Split open a berry. Inside are two little seeds that can be used to grow new Indian hawthorn bushes. Wash the seeds prior to planting.

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How to Measure for a Butterfly Chair Cover

Butterfly chairs, first brought to the United States to grace the famous Fallingwater house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, are a magical and comfortable cross between a folding seat and a hammock. The simplicity of design makes it easy to change covers, even though the special shape of the material can make measuring for a replacement appear a bit daunting. Fortunately, it’s no more difficult to quantify to get a new cover than it is to install one.

Open the frame of the seat so it’s fully unfolded.

Measure the rear of the butterfly seat at its widest point. Most butterfly chairs are between 29 and 33 inches wide, so you need to get the exact size.

Gauge the frame where the front of the seat attaches at its widest point. This generally is between 26 and 29 inches.

Run the measuring tape in the tip of the seat back frame into the tip of the seat front frame, enabling it to sag in the center the way the fabric of the chair does.

Use the dimensions to order the proper chair cover dimension. If you are sewing your new cover rather than purchasing a ready-made one, then add two inches to each of dimensions for seam allowances, and an additional 10 inches in length to make the pockets that hold the seat to the frame.

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Size of a Mature Persimmon Tree

Two types of persimmon trees are commonly developed in the western United States, Japanese or Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana). The oriental species produces larger fruit, but the American species is much larger and more cold tolerant. The size of mature persimmon trees is based on the species and cultivars, but a lot of them grow to heights of up to 30 feet or taller.

American Persimmon

American persimmon trees may grow up to 60 feet tall with a 25 to 30 foot spread. Often utilized in landscapes as a decorative tree, they do create edible fruit. The flowers are white to yellowish and generally look in march. This deciduous persimmon tree grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 though 9, producing oval glossy-green, 6-inch leaves which turn yellow or pink in autumn. The fruit is round, 1 1/2 to 2 inches wide and yellow. Trees need both male and female trees for pollination and to set fruit.

Oriental Persimmon

Oriental persimmon attains heights of 25 to 30 feet tall with about a 25 foot spread. This assortment of persimmon grows in USDA plant hardiness zones 7 though 10, producing oval, dark green leaves which turn, red, yellow and orange in autumn. In winter bright-red 3- to 4-inch fruits appear and remain on the tree through winter if not picked. Trees do set fruit without pollination, but pollinated trees create a sweeter, tastier and more abundant crop.

Astringent and Non-Astringent Fruit

Depending on number, persimmon trees may create astringent or non-astringent fruit. Both American and Oriental persimmon trees create astringent or bitter fruit, which are just sweet and delicious when allowed to fully ripen. Fully ripe persimmons are soft with a mushy consistency. Non-astringent persimmons are crunchy and firm when ripe and frequently eaten like an apple sliced into salads. The cultivar “Fuyu” produces smooth, non-astringent orange-red persimmons.

Attention of Persimmon Trees

Oriental and American persimmons trees are simple to grow and tolerate a number of soils when grown in areas with good drainage. Persimmon trees prefer full sunlight, but do tolerate partial shade. They withstand some drought, but intense drought may cause premature fruit drop. The persimmon fruit is larger and much better quality once the tree is given routine water; many trees require about 36 to 48 inches of water annually. Trees require small fertilization, as too much nitrogen causes fruit fall. You can apply balanced 10-10-10 fertilizer under the tree canopy in late winter or early spring, using one pound of fertilizer per each inch of trunk diameter at ground level. The persimmon tree requires about 7 to 8 years to mature to full size and bear fruit.

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Red Thread-Resistant Grasses

Red thread is a fungal disease which kills turf grass. This fungus covers a huge area without killing the grass since it spreads, but after 2- to 8-inch-wide regions of dead grass appear. Look for a reddish-pink jelly-like webbing, which glues the grass blades together. In areas prone to crimson thread illness, plant crimson thread-resistant grass varieties.

Susceptible Varieties

Some turf grasses are prone to red thread strikes. These grasses include cultivars of bentgrass, bluegrass, fescue, ryegrass and Bermuda grass. Infestations occur more often along coastal areas in which the temperatures are light, between 60 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Long periods of dampness also raise red thread development.


Perennial ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Is a tough native North American grass commonly planted for agricultural functions like livestock grazing. This vigorous grass produces green stalks, narrow leaves and summer flowers in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 1 through 12. In zones with warm summer weather, this grass variety does not survive the heat and is employed as a winter annual. Even though ryegrass is vulnerable to red thread fungus, enhanced perennial varieties demonstrate strong immunity to the respiratory disorder. According to the University of Illinois Extension, the following varieties comprise “Birdie II,” “Citation II,” “Linn,” “Pennant,” “Pippin,” “Premier” and “Tara.”

Fine-Leaf Fescue

Fine-leaf fescue (Festuca spp.) Grows best as a cool-season continued grass. Suited for USDA zones 1 through 9, this grass seems like a clumping or creeping narrow-blade grass forming a dense lawn. Many fescue grasses perish from crimson thread infections, but a few new varieties are immune to this disease. Resistant or reasonably resistant fine-leaf fescue grasses comprise “Atlanta,” “Aurora,” “Bighorn,” “Biljart,” “Dawson,” “Epsom,” “Flyer,” “Golfrood,” “Reliant,” “Scaldis,” “Shadow,” “Spartan,” “Valda,” “Weekend” and “Wintergreen.”

Kentucky Bluegrass

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a cool season grass that grows best in fall, winter and spring in USDA zones 1 through 8. The green grass blades produce a dense turf. Recently developed Kentucky bluegrass cultivars show good levels of immunity to crimson thread. The University of Illinois Extension reports which “Adelphi,” “Admiral,” “Aspen,” “Banff,” “Barblue,” “Bonnieblue,” “Bono,” “Bristol,” “Classic,” “Dormie,” “Eclipse,” “Haga,” “Harmony,” “Holiday,” “Midnight,” “Nassau,” “Trenton” and “Welcome” are immune to red thread.

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