Monthly Archives: December 2022

Scab Fungus at a Page Orange Tree

The Page orange (Citrus × tangelo) is a hybrid citrus that is a cross between a Clementine mandarin tangerine and a Minneola tangelo, a grapefruit-tangerine hybrid. Released in 1963, the tree is famous because of its small, sweet fruits, which ripen early in the season. Unfortunately, the Page orange is susceptible to citrus scab, a fungal disease that wreak havoc on young fruits and leaves. Preventative fungicide sprays can keep the disease at bay.


Citrus scab is first recognizable as elevated, orange dots on tender young leaves leaves. The dots finally become wartlike growths that are covered using a scabby tissue that is often grayish. The leaves become twisted, twisted and stunted, and might flip yellowish-green or yellowish. Scabs on fruit appear a few days after initial symptoms on leaves. New scabs are mild cream or pale yellow, darkening with time into a rotting green or dark grey color.

Scab Disease Cycle

Citrus scab is spread by spores, which spread to foliage and fruits through irrigation or rain water. The fruits and leaves have to be moist for three to four hours for the infection to take hold. Only young fruits and leaves are susceptible. Leaves are at risk until they’re a few days old, while vegetables are at risk for their initial two months of growth. According to the University of Florida IFAS Extension, the spores are most inclined to take grip of wet weather when temperatures are between 75 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit.

Scab Management

Routine applications of fungicide will help control the disease, especially if the disease continues from season to date. Choose a fungicide such as neem oil and then spray on the tree thoroughly, following the instructions on the label, prior to the tree flowers in the spring and when the flowers drop. Spray a third time since fruits are developing. Don’t spray when you’re expecting rain, since it will simply be washed away.

Scab Prevention

You can help avoid citrus scab by occasionally pruning the tree to allow better air circulation, which will dry the leaves faster and allow a preventive fungicide to cover more area, and by taking extra care not to get the leaves or fruit of the tree moist as you water. Pull away all tall weeds in the tree, as they can donate to the humid conditions that fungal diseases adore. If you can, move the tree to an area with more sunlight.

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How to Replace the Chain That Turns a Ceiling Fan On and Off

A busted pull string on a ceiling fan nearly always necessitates replacement of the on/off switch as a repair. A few versions do permit you to reattach the string, but you have to access the switch before deciding whether your fan is among them. Most likely, you will have to eliminate the switch before heading to a shop or searching online for a replacement part.

Turn off power to the ceiling fan by tripping the breaker at the home’s main electrical panel.

Climb a ladder to access the fan and open the cover plate at the base of the fan, at which pull string enters. The plate is usually held on to the remaining portion of the housing with three screws on the face of the box.

Unscrew the nut which retains the pull string and switch in position. You might require a wrench to loosen the nut.

Free the switch from in the housing, but do not detach any wires however. Check whether the string can be reattached. If this is the case, snap it back in place, put the nut back on and reassemble the access cover plate.

Draw a diagram or, better yet, snap a few pictures with your mobile phone. Pay particular attention to how the wires are connected to the switch, and in what order.

Detach the wires in the switch. They may be connected to feed wires with wire nuts. If so, bend the cable nuts counterclockwise to free up the wires. Some versions are wired directly into the switch. If that is true, avoid cutting the wires in the switch assembly. Insert a small screwdriver into the slot adjacent to every wire to pop them loose.

Notice the model number and brand of the ceiling fan in addition to how many rates it’s. Take this information, in addition to the old switch, to a home center so that you can match it up with a replacement part.

Determine how the wires attach to the new switch. Insert wires into slots on the switch in the specific order that they lined up on the old switch. When the new switch has terminals, twist each wire clockwise around the appropriate terminal and then tighten down the terminal screw. When the wires attach to feed wires with wire nuts, then strip about 1/2 inch of insulation in the switch wires and twist the appropriate switch wires along with the feed wires, then twist on a wire nut.

Slide the switch to the fan housing and reattach it with the nut in Step 3.

Reattach the housing cover, then turn the breaker back on.

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How to Prune & Eliminate Shrub Thorns

Thorns primarily serve as a plant self-defense mechanism against predators, even though they contain vascular tissue that transports fluids and nutrients. Although a lot of plants grow thorns, notably those producing fruit, like gooseberries, barberries and quince, rose bushes are omnipresent with the prickly protrusions. Thorny shrubs work well when used as solitude hedging and natural landscape obstacles, for they discourage animals from entering the enclosed area. Late spring and early winter is the perfect time for pruning most varieties.

Inspect the shrub and identify all branches or canes that protrude over walkways and regions of foot traffic. Prune these branches straight away from the walkway, using bypass hand shears that were sterilized with bleach, to avoid injury or disturbance to passers-by.

Look over the shrub for biting or tangled branches or canes. Explain the weakest, most brittle thorny branches of this band and prune them into the branch collar.

Trim spindly canes to half their length or between 2 and 3 feet, making the cut 1/4-inch above a wholesome bud.

Open the thorny shrub by thinning the earliest branches together with the opposite hand shears or, if bigger than a few inches, a handsaw. Cut the branches into the branch collar. If trimming a vertical-growing branch, cut 2 to 3 inches from bottom level. Thinning the shrub out allows sunlight to reach regions typically blocked from sunlight by the plant branches, enhances aeration and promotes new growth.

Go above the shrub visually to find any branches or canes affected by insects or disease. Cut all affected branches and canes till you achieve healthy tissue. If necessary, eliminate entirely by cutting into the root collar.

Add branches to your compost pile after pruning as an ecologically friendly, self-sustainable way of disposable. You could also add them into other yard waste and set them in your green bin for pick up from the municipality’s waste support, when available.

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How to Redo Landscaping

Your landscape will be the introduction to your home. You can make your home more inviting, more appealing, and include curb appeal by redoing the front yard. In the backyard you’ll be able to make a usable space for what your family likes best, whether that’s volleyball, vegetable gardening or entertaining. Careful planning and a step by step procedure will make the renovation of this landscape a fun procedure.

Assess the website. Create a scale drawing of the yard. Determine what components of the present landscape meet your needs and will be kept. Decide what has to be added so that the landscape is more appealing and usable.

Remove elements which won’t be part of this new landscape. Hire professionals to remove large trees and re-route electric wire and pipes, if needed. Stockpile items that will be re-used close to the site of their new use.

Remove irrigation pipes and level the soil under fresh patios or constructions. Construct hardscapes, including walls, patios, paths and constructions. Install new plumbing, wiring and underground irrigation pipes. Start at the most often used places and continue out there to less used areas.

Lay out the borders of flower or vegetable beds and put in edging. Spread 2 to 3 inches of compost or aged manure over the soil and till it in.

Plant trees, shrubs and other big or slow growing plants that will provide the construction of this landscape. Consider the mature size of each plant and allow enough distance, including overhead. Avoid very large trees which will overpower the scale of the existing landscape and home.

Put in the drip irrigation system, rainwater harvesting system and greywater system, if you will be utilizing them. Coordinate systems so that both new and existing plants will be adequately watered.

Amend the soil where you’ll be planting lawns or groundcover. Use the process described for flowerbeds. Plant the lawn or groundcover.

Plant vegetables and flowers at the right season. Mulch the mattresses.

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The way to Decorate an Outdoor Brick Retaining Wall

Outside brick retaining walls add some design or an official look to landscaping. In case a brick retaining wall is extended, however, it may tend to look bare or plain. Spice up the wall and then give it more appeal by decorating it. Many options aside from the normal paint project can add character and texture to a brick retaining wall, such as plants and wall hangings.

Create a planting bed in the bottom of the brick retaining wall, and add shrubs or smaller trees to the bed. They’ll split the wall’s plain surface. If no soil is under the wall, as is true for a wall that is against a drive, then add narrow, decorative planters and build plants inside them.

Attach a decorative-styled trellis to the brick retaining wall with masonry screws. Plant climbing vines like ivy or climbing roses in the wall’s base, and enable the plants to cover the trellis. Using a decorative-styled trellis ensures that the wall nevertheless will have some interest if the vines die back in cool weather.

Hang decorative wall hangings on the wall, like wrought-iron designed bits, antique garden tools or glassware. The things to choose is dependent on the style of the surrounding landscaping, which is anything from coastal or rustic to Victorian.

Place potted plants in addition to the wall to draw eyes up and to keep guests from seeing a simple, plain wall. If needed, use plants that tend to spill over their pots, like creeping zinnias (Sanvitalia procumbens), therefore they develop down above the wall, breaking up the straight line of the wall’s top. Creeping zinnias, which can be annuals, work well in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 9 but may also develop to some degree in most zones.

Add decorative lighting to the wall. If possible, connect the lights to an electric source so that you can control them readily. If electricity isn’t available, use solar-powered lighting. Attach the lights to the wall, or place them across the wall’s top ledge. Include plants involving the lights for an interesting impact.

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How to Wire Pool Lights

Many swimming pools have sealed lighting fixtures which can provide lighting for security when swim after dark. Some contemporary swimming pool lights can produce several colors in a series of patterns that are timed to give ambiance as well. Since electricity and water are a dangerous mix, a pool lighting must be completely sealed for security, to prevent water from getting into the element. You may wire pool lights into the electric circuit to your pool with some simple hand tools.

Drain water from the pool before the water amount is no less than 6 inches beneath the pool lighting casing.

Switch off the circuit breaker for the pool or for the whole residence. Open the junction box for the pool light’s wiring connections with a screwdriver. Test the wiring from the circuit in the junction box with a noncontact electrical tester. If the lighting in the tester comes on, turn off other breakers or the main breaker into the home until the lighting no longer illuminates when examining the wires.

Feed a fish tape through the junction box toward the lighting fixture housing. After the tape appears in the casing, overlap about 6 inches of the end of a #8 copper grounding cable and also the tip of the wiring cable for the pool lighting with the end of the fish tape. Wrap a electric tape across the overlapped joint to secure the wires into the fish tape. Gently pull the fish tape from the junction box till the wires seem. Pull around 12 inches of both wires out to the junction box, then eliminate the electric tape and place the fish tape aside.

Cut the end of the #8 copper wire from the roster with wire cutters, then connect the end of the wire to the fixture’s grounding connector with an adjustable wrench.

Coil the additional wire for the fixture and tuck it in the housing. Tilt the fixture and place the base of the fixture on the lip of the casing. Push the surface of the housing forwards, sealing the gasket across the lip of the casing, and tighten the mounting screw into the threaded receptacle on the cover of the casing.

Remove about 6 inches of outer sheathing from the fixture’s diagnostic cable at the junction box with a utility knife. Then strip 1/2 inch of insulation from the tips of the wires with a wire stripper.

Attach the wires into the wiring controller within the junction box as outlined in the setup manual for the pool lighting kit. If your lighting doesn’t have any wiring controller, hook the black wire from the pool lighting to the black wire from the electric panel with a wire nut. Wire the white and bare wires in like fashion, then tuck the wires to the junction box and put in the cover plate.

Turn the circuit breaker and analyze the pool lights prior to refilling the pool.

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The way to Secure a Washing Machine Drainage Tray

A washing machine without a drainage tray installed beneath the unit is a problem waiting to happen. If the washing machine or the seams connecting the washer to the pipes spring a leak, then the consequent water damage could prove quite costly. A washing machine drainage tray can easily be installed and plumbed to drain any overflow to a nearby floor drain, splitting any water spillage away from where it can cause damage. It is possible to fasten a washing machine drainage tray to keep it in position and stop leaks from the tray.

Disconnect the washing machine from the power outlet and slip it away from the wall. Turn off the hot and cold water valves and remove the feed seams in the valves using a pair of slip-joint pliers. Pull the drain hose out of the drain line from the wall, and move the washing machine out of the way.

Sweep the region beneath the where the washing machine has been installed and scrape away any things that have stuck to the floor with a 3-inch putty knife.

Drill a 1/8-inch pilot hole 3 inches toward the center of the pan from each of the four corners. Then position the drainage tray to the region where the washing machine will reside. Mark the hole locations on the floor beneath the tray using a pencil. If the floor beneath the tray is tile, remove the tray and drill a pilot hole to the floor for every screw using a 1/4-inch tile drill bit, then tap on a plastic anchor into each hole. If the floor beneath the tile is masonry, use a masonry bit to drill the same four holes before inserting the anchors. For wood floors, no anchor is essential.

Insert a tube of silicone caulk into a caulk gun. Cut the end of the nozzle using a utility knife, and run a thick continuous bead of caulk around the perimeter of the washing machine drainage tray.

Place the tray into position, and push a 2-inch sheet metal roof screw with a rubber washer through each of the four corner holes to the wood or anchor below. Drive each screw before the washer begins to make contact with the tray, but not so far that the washer bulges out from beneath the metal backer.

Boost the washing machine on the tray with the aid of an associate. Then reconnect the water lines, drain line and electrical plug to the outlet.

Connect a threaded PVC coupler to the drain hole in the side of the tray. In case a hole is not currently punched from the tray to adapt the coupler, either tap the perforated knockout for the hole using a screwdriver or drill a 3/4-inch hole using a hole saw and a power drill. Then attach parts of 3/4-inch PVC as required to direct any water from the tray to the nearest floor drain.

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The way to Mow Tall Thick Grass

An overgrown yard looks unattractive and can’t grow well. The very long, thick grass blades prevent sunlight, moisture and nutrients from getting to the base of the grass blades and into the soil where they benefit the lawn best. Even though the best height for yard grass depends on the amount, most types grow well when kept at a 3-inch height. An overgrown yard requires several mowings to bring it back to a healthy height, otherwise the grass might suffer from over trimming at once.

Measure the height of the grass and decide just how much to cut to eliminate one-third of its existing height. For example, 6-inch-tall grass should have no more than 2 inches removed through the initial mowing, since removing over one-third of the blade length at one time might damage the lawn.

Adjust the height of your lawnmower so it only removes the top one-third of the blade.

Mow the lawn once the grass blades are dry. Mow in one direction, in horizontal, vertical or diagonal lines throughout the lawn.

Cut the grass a second time three days later, after the cut edges of the grass have had time to heal. Adjust the lawnmower into the proper cutting height for the current height of the grass blades so no more than one-third of the blade is removed as well as the height of the grass is no lower than 3 inches after mowing. Mow in the contrary direction of the previous cutting; should you mowed horizontally formerly, mow vertically this moment.

Mow every few days, lowering the mower blade as necessary, until the grass is at the suitable 3-inch height. Once the grass is at the proper height, mow the lawn once the grass grows into your 4- into 5-inch height, or approximately once weekly, so it will not become overgrown again.

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