Monthly Archives: December 2020

The Way Plant Pigments Change Color in the Presence of Heat or Acid

The rich, enticing colors that add eye appeal to new fruits, vegetables, leaves and flowers can change when heated or subjected to acid. Fall leaves go from green to bright, glowing hues. French hydrangeas (Hydrangea macrophylla), hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 9, have pink flowers when planted in alkaline soil and blue flowers when in acidic soil. Four kinds of plant pigments act differently when subjected to heat or acidity, making colour changes.


Chlorophyll pigments give plants their green colour, and many changes happen when a green tea belongs into boiling water. First, a brighter green colour develops, brought on by the growth of gases and their escape from spaces between plant cells. The collapse of the quite cloudy pockets of gas reveals the bright-green chloroplasts within cells. Another color change happens in response to acidic water: The calcium ion in the middle of the chlorophyll molecule is replaced with a hydrogen molecule, causing the green to dull. Chlorophyll-a gets gray-green pheophytin-a, and chlorophyll-b turns into yellow pheophytin-b. When the boiling water is slightly alkaline, then chlorophyll stays greener. Fried vegetables change to a duller green colour when temperatures reach 140 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat damages chloroplasts, releasing organic cell acids to turn green to olive-green.

Red and Blue

Reds, blues and purples happen because of a concentration of various kinds of anthocyanins, water-soluble pigments held in plant cell sap. Heating doesn’t change them, however, they’re red in acidic conditions and blue or purple in alkaline conditions. The colour of fall leaves happens when the leaf chlorophyll expires. Intense reds and purples of anthocyanins, which can be made up of anthocyanidins plus glucose molecules, form finest in reaction to heat, sunny fall days with cool night temperatures that don’t fall below freezing. Those conditions result in abundant sugar formation and better anthocyanin production. Leaves turn reddish when cell sap is contaminated and purplish or blue when cell sap is more alkaline. Vegetables and fruits with anthocyanins can change colour completely in response to acidity or alkalinity. Under alkaline conditions, sometimes red cabbage leaves flip blue-purple when cooked, blueberry fruits become green in garlic and sausage cloves turn green or blue when pickled.

Yellow and Orange

Carotenoids are more soluble in fat than in water, and so their colors do not fade much in reaction to heat. Some change happens, but with carrot taproots moving from red-orange to more yellow when cooked. When colorful apricot and bright-red tomato fruits are sun-driedthey lose much of their brightness unless they’re treated with the antioxidant sulfur dioxide. Carotenoids also have less-intense color under acidic conditions.


White or colorless to start with, anthoxanthins are water-soluble. They get white when in polluted environments and yellowish when alkaline conditions prevail. They turn dark in excess heat. If plant cells with anthoxanthins are cooked in aluminum, tin or iron containers, their pigments may respond with that alloy’s ions and shape colors like grey, blue, red, green and brown.

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The Way to Quantify Linear Feet for Upholstery

Whether you are likely to do the upholstery yourself or have somebody else do it, then it’s good business sense to know how much material you require for your occupation. Overestimating by a little is great; the excess can be use for arm protectors or throw cushions. Underestimating could signify piecing fabric or using dye lots. It requires a bit of work, but the outcome is you will have the ideal amount of fabric.

Measure Each Section

Measure each section of this item and record the measurements as”width by length.” This keeps the design orientation in perspective. For example, step across the interior rear and record the dimension from left to right as the width, and the dimension from the top of the rear to the junction of the rear and also the deck as the length. The fabric design runs perpendicular to the width edge. On the inner arm, the piece measurement width is contrary to the front of the arm towards the rear edge, along with the length is out of the seam connecting the piece to the outer arm, up and above the arm and down into the deck. The design will be vertical to the width edge. Insert 8 inches to each dimension and record these new figures as the cut piece measurements.

Create To-Scale Patterns

Cut to-scale representations of each design piece, together with the measurements on each piece along with also the design orientation Use 1/4-inch graph paper and convert the piece measurements using a single square to equivalent 6 inches. As an example, if the rear piece measures 86 inches wide and 40 inches long, then cut a pattern from the 1/4-inch graph paper equivalent to 14 1/2 squares wide and 6 1/2 squares long, with a arrow pointing into the 14 1/2-square edge — the 86-inch edge. Remember to cut 1 pattern piece representation for each section of this furniture. For example, cut two arms and two arms.

A Cloth Roll Pattern

Tape several parts of 1/4-inch graph paper with each other to represent the roll of fabric. Upholstery fabric is generally 54 inches wide; indicate the graph paper”roster” nine squares wide. Start with a paper representation of 10 yards, or 60 squares . If your fabric is a different width, then fix your paper roll accordingly.

Arrange the Pattern Pieces

Set the piece patterns on the fabric representation. The width of the pattern piece orients into the length edge on the fabric. As an example, on the rear piece which measures 86 inches wide and has an arrow pointing towards that edge, orient that edge along the long edge of the fabric representation. Put all the pattern pieces on the graph paper fabric representation, rearranging as necessary to optimize space.

Calculate the Footage

Compute the linear footage demanded by counting the amount of squares used across the fabric length point, multiplying this amount by 6 and dividing the result by 12. This gives the amount of linear feet of fabric. To convert this to yards, divide the amount of linear feet. If you are coping with a huge pattern, add 20 per cent to the final fabric requirements to allow for pattern matching. If you are careful, you may incorporate pattern matching on your layout on the fabric roll representation.

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How Quickly Can Artwork Lighten Without Non-Glare Glass?

Glass does little to shield artwork when subjected to direct sunshine. The rate with which art lightens and fades without non-glare glass is right about the same as with it. Non-glare glass and even especially coated ultraviolet glass does little to protect artwork from fading. While glass manufacturers and retailers may attempt to convince you differently, museum curators know the reality. A memorial curator never places a precious piece of artwork on screen without ensuring its security first.

Sunlight and Artwork

How quickly a piece of artwork fades when exposed to light is dependent upon if it’s summer or winter. Sunlight has less impact on artwork but can still harm it with continuous exposure. A piece of art exposed to the direct intensity of summer’s sunlight fades more quickly, in as little as a few hours or days, compared to sunlight exposure. The majority of the retail glass available for protecting art does little to shield it from the UV rays of sunlight, especially when the art is subjected to harsh sunshine.

Conservation-Grade Glass

Museum curators use a particular kind of glass — called conservation-grade — that includes four distinct sandwiched layers and coatings. The glass typically comprises two special optical coatings, one on top and the other on the bottom, a layer of glass plus a third conservation-grade UV coating beside the glass prior to the final optical coating. When coupled together, conservation museum-grade glass may block up to 99 percent of UV rays, while still allowing around 97 percent light transmission. Museum-grade glass has a 1 percent reflection factor.

Protecting Art

Original pieces of artwork require protection from sunlight and even protection from indoor lighting, which can also emit UV rays. The very first step in safeguarding original art begins with hanging it where it does not receive direct exposure to sunlight. If you hang artwork on a wall that receives sun — even just a few hours every day — the artwork fades with time, with or without non-glare or UV glass. To avoid facing, place artwork on walls that face away from sunlight or on walls that don’t get harsh sunlight. If you add a light above your art, confirm the bulbs do not include UV rays too.

Choosing Glass for Artwork

The value of a piece of art is subjective, unless you have it assessed by an art appraiser for insurance or auction functions. In case you’ve valued art that’s also insured, don’t place it receives exposure to harsh sunshine. Insert a frame that contains museum-grade glass to watercolor art, signed and numbered prints, or lithographs by your favourite artist. Oil and acrylic paintings typically don’t have glass , but you also can shield them using conservation-grade glass if you would like.

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How to Get Red Wine Out of a Fake Leather Couch

Following a long, hard day, it is nice to kick back and unwind with a glass of your favorite red wine. It’s not so calming, however, when that blood-red wine spills on your faux leather sofa. Fake leather is not quite as fragile as the real thing, therefore it is a lot easier to wash. To knock out the stain, first consume just as much wine as possible, then finish up by dissolving any remaining discoloration.

Blot the wine stain with a clean cloth as soon as possible after it occurs. Do not rub; doing so will only embed the wine farther in the upholstery.

Moisten the stain with a small amount of white wine, if wanted. White wine helps neutralize the redness, which makes the stain easier to eliminate.

Scatter table salt evenly over the stain. Wait for five minutes. As the salt absorbs the wine, you will see it turn pink. Blot the area with a damp cloth.

Mix 1 tbsp liquid dish detergent with 2 cups cool water. Dampen a clean cloth with the solution, then dab the stain with it. The wine will move to the cloth. Continue blotting until no longer wine will come from this sofa.

Dampen a cloth with dry-cleaning solvent if the stain hasn’t disappeared fully. Blot the stain with the solvent until it fades. Alternatively, combine equal parts cool water and white vinegar, then dab the stain with a cloth dipped in the answer. Allow it to set for three to five minutes, then wipe the area with a clean, damp cloth.

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How to Get Chewing Gum Out of a Microfiber Sofa

Chewing gum and furniture appear to attract one another, especially with children in the home. Since gum is so pliable, parts of it remain stuck to this microfiber sofa fabric even if you’re in a position to get rid of a whole lot of the sticky material. A couple of gum removal tricks from your stain-treatment arsenal — regular household supplies — assist remove that gooey mess without damaging the sofa fabric’s fibers.

Frozen in Time

A gooey chewing gum mess on such microfiber sofa becomes much more of a problem if left to sit some time, as it might spread or become adhered to clothes too. An ice cube placed over the gum for a couple of minutes hardens it enough to pull it off. Pull off what comes up readily, then apply more ice until you’ve removed as much as possible. A butter knife scrapes off pieces that are tough to pull off. Ice may also be set in a plastic zipper bag to store the water off the sofa as the ice melts, resulting in less litter. To get a tech-worthy ice treatment, spray the gum with a can of compressed air typically used to clean computer keyboards. This may freeze the gum immediately, allowing it to be chipped away.

Vinegar Vanishing Act

Warm vinegar helps loosen gum from the sofa fibers. Pour an inch or so of white vinegar to a microwave-safe container like a glass measuring cup, then heat for 30 to 45 seconds. Dip a soft white cloth into the vinegar, then hold it atop the gum for a moment or so. A rubber glove on one hand helps tighten away the gum, since the rubber grips the gum slightly. Dab a fresh moist cloth over the gummed place after cleaning to remove the vinegar.

Gooey Gum Remover

A citrus-based cleaner intended for removing sticky residues from a number of surfaces helps break gum and loosen its grip on the microfiber. Apply a small amount into a fabric or cotton swab, then dab directly onto the gum and allow it to sit for a couple of minutes. Lift in the gum with a rubber glove to pull it off, or scrape with the edge of a butter knife. Dab a paper towel and then a moist cloth over the area afterwards to remove what is left of this cleaner. If worried about possible discoloration of the sofa, test the goo remover in an inconspicuous area first.

Treat With Heating

Sometimes, removing gum from microfiber involves making the gum much more gooey. Place a plain brown paper bag over the gum, then run a warm iron over the paper with no steam, moving the iron around slightly over the area. Lift the paper frequently to determine whether the gum has moved to the paper. If so, tear off and discard the area and repeat the ironing process with a fresh area of the bag to remove any gum.

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How to Clean Gold Leaf Furniture

Gold leaf furniture, also known as gilded furniture, which has an extremely thin layer of gold applied above the surface, providing the piece golden accents. Gold leaf is so thin you may easily damage it, so take extreme caution when cleaning furniture decorated with the material. A light dusting with a soft-bristled brush is the safest way to clean gold leaf without causing damage.

A Gentle Touch

Do not clean accurate gold leaf furniture exactly the same manner as comparable furniture without a gold leaf therapy. Moisture, like from wiping it down with a damp cloth, can cause the gold leaf to release from the furniture and wind up on the cloth instead. A soft makeup brush or other brush using extremely soft bristles eliminates dust from grooves and details without removing the gold leaf. A gentle vacuuming also will help remove dust, holding the vacuum nozzle slightly away from the furniture bit to prevent scratching it.

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How to utilize Shellac on Woodwork and Doors

A favorite of French polishers and crafters alike, shellac is a fantastic go-to sealer for do-it-yourselfers who want an easy-to-use product for sealing and finishing wood. Shellac was once the normal sealer for architectural woodwork and inside doors. Whether you’ve got a grand Victorian manse or a modest, 1930s row home, you will discover shellac creates a warm, lustrous surface your neighbors will envy.

Shellac Basics

Shellac is a leaf secreted by the lac bug, a scale insect from the East Indies. The leaf is processed to shellac flakes, which can be dissolved in denatured alcohol for use. Some old-timers still purchase dry shellac flakes and mix them with denatured alcohol themselves. Prepared shellac has a one- to three-year shelf life. If the shellac isn’t fresh, test it by smearing some on a piece of scrap wood. If the shellac doesn’t harden by the morning after, don’t use it.

Prep Work

Prepare surfaces by cleaning them with a household cleaner and rinsing thoroughly. Use 220-grit sandpaper to smooth out rough spots and give the surface a scratchy finish. Wipe away dust with a damp cloth. If it is functional, remove doors and then place them on sawhorses or another horizontal surface for better control during program. Cover floors and neighboring objects using a drop cloth or a plastic tarp. Ventilate the room; use a fan if necessary.


Soak a broad, natural-bristle brush or a clean, lint-free cloth in the shellac and wipe away excess on the side of the container. Working with the grain, apply shellac with long strokes, working fast and always next to some “wet edge” to prevent marring a partly dried surface. If the shellac becomes sticky during program, thin it with denatured alcohol in a 1 to 1 ratio for the initial coat. The surface is prepared for a second coat once it dries hard in about one to four hours.


Use 320-grit seams between coats to smooth brush marks and then knock stray pieces of debris and dust. Employ multiple coats until you attain the richness and color you desire. Do not sand the last coat. To prevent conspicuous brush marks that go against wood grain, work first on members whose grain dissolves in other members. On a two-paneled door, for example, finish the panels first, then the horizontal top, middle and bottom rails, and ultimately the vertical stiles.

Other Uses

Should you need to stain your woodwork or doors, cut shellac to one third strength with denatured alcohol and use it like a staining sealer to prevent blotchy staining. When dealing with paint, white-tinted shellac, marketed as alcohol-based primer, prevents knots, resin deposits and waxy or oily spots from showing through the top coat. Use it to reduce rust on steel tools or to get quick touch-ups on woodwork and hardwood floors.

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How to Remove Painted Tissue Paper In Your Walls

One of the best benefits of artificial painting is that inspiration can strike when you least expect it, causing you to change your original strategy. For example, you might have opened a frottage technique, where you stain a moist, glazed wall using tissue paper only to decide to use the paper directly to the wall to get dimension as well as color. Now, however, it can be time to get your painted tissue paper to come down. Although you might not have as much fun taking away the paper as you did applying it, then it can keep you focused on your next artistic creation and make sure that you begin it with a clean slate.

Affix painter’s tape to your baseboards to capture the water and paper fragments that drip from the wall as you eliminate the tissue paper. As an additional safeguard for your floor, spread a drop cloth, old blanket or plastic adhesive sheets close to the wall.

Cut small pieces of cardboard the size of any sockets on your wall. Cover the cardboard using masking tape to block water from seeping to the outlets.

Select the perfect tool — or even a combination of resources — to create holes in the tissue paper. Your goal here is to create holes in the paper so it’s possible to dissolve the adhesive underneath it. So if the tissue paper exhibits small cracks and bubbles, go over the wall using a straight pin, popping holes every few inches. If the tissue paper displays large bubbles and gaps, pop holes using a hair pick.

Fill a bucket with warm water and when it reaches a warm temperature that’s comfortable to the touch, wipe the wall with a large, soft sponge, similar to those utilized for washing automobiles. After the wall looks dry, repeat this step to loosen the glue under the paper.

Examine the grip of the glue by trying to remove the tissue paper using a putty knife. Based on the potency of the glue, it might come off easily at this point. If so, continue scraping away. Keep in mind it is the adhesive or glue that’s your authentic “nemesis” here since it is what is bonding the painted paper to the wall. Maintain a garbage bag nearby so you can toss glue and paper fragments promptly away.

Attack stubborn glue stains using a solution of 75 percent liquid fabric softener to 25 percent of warm water. Mix the solution in a bucket and pour it into a paint tray.

Cover the wall using the solution, employing a small or large paint roller. Use the solution just as though you were applying paint, going above the surface many times to ensure a consistent cover.

Permit the solution to sit down on the wall to get a minimum of 30 minutes. Lift the remaining paper or glue using a putty knife.

Finesse the wall, as it’s typical for little, gummy parts of glue to remain on the wall, also in this point. Remove any debris using a sponge or a putty knife.

Permit the wall to dry. Then rub together with the wall using a moist sponge and allow it to dry again. Clean it with a mild solution of sudsy water, then rub on it again while you envision plans for your next wall creation.

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Different types of Blue Spruce Shrubs

The most common blue evergreen tree or shrub in the landscape is the Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens). The large native tree is found in the Western mountainous areas of the USA. The Colorado blue spruce thrives in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 through 8. Many of these cultivated varieties, derived from the Colorado blue spruce, also develop well in these USDA zones.

Big Blue Spruce

The native Colorado blue spruce and its normal variation, Colorado blue spruce Glauca (P. pungens var. Glauca), can develop 50 to 80 feet in the landscape as well as taller in the wild. Most blue spruce varieties are smaller, even though the large ones. Moerheim (P. pungens “Moerheim”), Hoopsii (P. pungens “Hoopsii”) and also Iseli Fastigiata (P. pungens “Fastigiata”) are examples of large blue spruce varieties. Moerheim is a tree with dense foliage that reaches about 30 feet at maturity. It is a hardy, fast-growing tree with an irregular habit when young, becoming erect and pyramidal with age. Moerheim preserves its blue foliage throughout its growth phase. Possibly the strongest blue color is displayed by Hoopsii. It forms a neat upright tree of approximately 30 feet. Iseli Fastigiata also has great blue coloration and is very narrow with upward-pointing divisions, which makes a striking accent in the landscape.

Medium-Sized Blue Spruce

Medium-sized or semi-dwarf forms of Colorado blue spruce include Fat Albert (P. pungens “Fat Albert”) and Montgomery (P. pungens “Montgomery”). Fat Albert has glowing blue foliage and a squat, pyramidal shape. The tree is broad and rounded when young and will achieve 8 feet by 6 feet in 10 years following planting. Montgomery has a conical and globular shape with attractive silvery blue needles. It grows slowly, just 3 to 6 inches each year. After 10 years, Montgomery can reach 3 to 4 feet and a width of 3 feet.

Dwarf Blue Spruce

Dwarf Colorado blue spruce varieties have a tendency to get a globular form along with a slow growth habit. A good example of a dwarf variety is Glauca Globosa (P. pungens “Glauca Globosa”), which grows no more than 2 to 3 inches each year, eventually reaching a height of 2 or 3 feet. With time, it may become wider than tall and may develop one or more leaders, which should be pruned away to maintain its kind. Utilize neon blue spruces in rock gardens, mixed borders, as a low hedge or in containers. The shrubs are not fussy about the kind of soil, but prefer well-drained soil and a sunny or partially sunny location.

Prostrate Blue Spruce

The number Procumbens (P. pungens “Procumbens”), sometimes called “Prostrata,” is a low, spreading ground cover shrub. It grows 1 foot tall and also becomes 8 feet wide after 10 years. Procumbens is striking when used on slopes or when its silvery blue-green foliage spills over a rock wall.

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